The Mystery of the Underhill Medal

Front of the silver medal awarded to R.T. Underhill in 1847.

Front of the silver medal awarded to R.T. Underhill in 1847.

How did a silver medal from 1847, awarded to R.T. Underhill for the grapes he grew on Croton Point, end up buried in a garden on Long Island? That’s what reader Mike S. wants to know.

“Many years ago, possibly 25 or so,” he writes, “my grandfather was turning his garden in Shirley, New York. He heard a loud bang, and quickly shut off the rototiller to see what it was. After a moment of searching he found a large piece of metal. He cleaned it off, gave it to me, and told me it was a lucky charm.”

For Mike, his treasured “lucky charm” has become something of an obsession.

  • Who was R.T. Underhill?
  • What was the American Institute, the organization that awarded the medal?
  • Why is “R. Lovett” stamped along the bottom of the front side?
  • How did the medal get buried in his grandfather’s garden?

We can answer all his questions—except the last one.

Back of the silver medal awarded to R.T. Underhill in 1847 "for choice specimens of Isabella & Catawba grapes.".

Back of the silver medal awarded to R.T. Underhill in 1847 “for choice specimens of Isabella & Catawba grapes.”

The Grape King of Croton Point

As readers of this blog know, Richard T. Underhill was the “Grape King,” who built the first commercial winery in the United States on Croton Point. He began his vineyard by planting European varieties of grapes he purchased in Brooklyn from André Parmentier, a wealthy, educated Belgian who came to America to escape the French Revolution and started a nursery that included a vineyard. At first Parmentier sold only European grapes, but it turned out that they did not grow well in New York.

According to U.P. Hedrick’s authorative book, The Grapes of New York, Parmentier later added “the two American varieties, Catawba and Isabella, which were then becoming popular.”

Detail from “Gathering Grapes—An October Scene on the Hudson,” a wood engraving published in Harper's Weekly. The image depicts the Underhill vineyard in 1867.

Detail from “Gathering Grapes—An October Scene on the Hudson,” a wood engraving published in Harper’s Weekly. The image depicts the Underhill vineyard in 1867.

Underhill’s first batch of European varieties had died, but Hedrick says that Underhill “had been fired with a consuming desire to grow grapes. In 1827 he began planting Catawbas and Isabellas. This vineyard of American grapes grew until it covered 75 acres, the product of which was sold in New York City. This was the first large vineyard in the country.”

View of one of the American Institute's fairs from Harper's magazine.

View of one of the American Institute’s fairs from Harper’s magazine.

The American Institute

The American Institute of the City of New York (also known as the American Institute of the City of New York for the Encouragement of Science and Invention) was founded in New York on February 19, 1828, to encourage and promote “domestic industry in this State, and the United States, in Agriculture, Commerce, Manufacturing and the Arts, and any improvements made therein.” It attempted to fulfill that task by two means: first, by organizing annual fairs at which prizes were awarded to outstanding artisans and inventors, and second, by actively promoting government policies that would encourage and protect domestic manufacturing, agriculture, and commerce.

R. T. Underhill was a leading member of the Institute and the 1847 silver medal is one of many awards he and his brother, William A. Underhill, won over the years for their grapes, plums and quinces. 1

The Institute’s annual report gives us an idea of the size and scope of the 1847 fair. “The fair was opened to the public at Castle Garden on the 6th day of October, and closed on the 23rd. The exhibition consisted of productions from 2,194 contributors in almost every department of manufactures, the mechanic arts and horticultural production. The whole consisting of more than 20,000 articles . . . For about three weeks the place of exhibition is the centre of attraction for this city, the neighboring cities, and throughout our country, to distances almost incredible; crowds are continually flocking here to witness the grand display, which embraces the products of all occupations and the whole industrial community.”2

Robert Lovett, Engraver

The medal awarded to Underhill was designed by Robert Lovett, Sr., the patriarch of a family of famous engravers. He was born on March 19, 1796, and grew up in a quiet New York City neighborhood in an area now covered by the western end of the Brooklyn Bridge. After a brief military service during the War of 1812 he apprenticed in the shop of master stone seal engraver Thomas Brown.

Advertisment from Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, [Philadelphia], January 15, 1818.

Advertisment from Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, [Philadelphia], January 15, 1818.

By 1816 he had married and moved to Philadelphia to set up his own engraving business, specializing in dies and seals. By 1824 Lovett was back in New York City, where he set up shop at 249 Broadway. “His shop location moved several times over the years,” according to Lovett expert and collector Baldwin, “but he stayed in New York City until his death on December 31, 1874, just six hours after the passing of his wife of 60 years.”

Lovett has another Croton connection—he designed the medal produced for the Croton Water Celebration, when what we now call the Old Croton Aqueduct opened to public use on October 14, 1842. See an example of that medal here.

A Mystery

How did the medal end up buried on Long Island? The Underhills do have deep roots there. Capt. John Underhill (1608/9-1672), the founder of the oldest and largest Underhill family in the U. S. and Canada, lived at various times in Flushing, Southold, Setauket and Oyster Bay. One can speculate that perhaps an Underhill relative had once lived in Mike’s grandfather’s house. Whatever the case it’s great to be able to share this medal with our readers.

For more information on the Underhill vineyards, see these previous posts:


  1. See Underhill’s obituary in the Proceedings of the American Pomological Society, 1871.
  2. See the Sixth Annual Report of the American Institute of the City of New-York, 1848.

Hidden in the Trees

Sanford Robinson Gifford, American, 1823–1880. Hook Mountain, Near Nyack, on the Hudson, 1866. Oil on canvas. Yale University Art Gallery. Click the image to enlarge it.

Sanford Robinson Gifford, American, 1823–1880. Hook Mountain, Near Nyack, on the Hudson, 1866.
Oil on canvas. Yale University Art Gallery. Click the image to enlarge it.

This magnificent Hudson River School painting, Hook Mountain, Near Nyack, on the Hudson by Sanford Robinson Gifford, shows the view looking west from the southern shores of Croton Point. Hidden in the trees in the foreground is the rooftop and cupola of Richard T. Underhill’s Italianate villa, which he built in 1846 and christened “Interwasser”.

Detail showing the rooftop and cupola of the Underhill mansion on the southern tip of Croton Point. Click the image to enlarge it.

Detail showing the rooftop and cupola of the Underhill mansion on the southern tip of Croton Point.
Click the image to enlarge it.

The image is courtesy of the Yale University Art Gallery, which has made “thousands of images of works in the Gallery’s collection . . . available for free download . . .”

For a similar view from higher up, showing the Underhill vineyards, see this previous post of a wood engraving from Harper’s Weekly.

You should also check out the Hudson River School Art Trail, which includes this painting in an effort to encourage people to “hike in the footsteps of Hudson River School artists . . .” to “see the locations that influenced famous American landscape paintings of the 19th century.”

The Season of the Vintage

The top of the front page of the October 23, 1862 issue of the New York Times. Cost of the paper? Two cents.

The top of the front page of the October 23, 1862 issue of the New York Times. Cost of the paper? Two cents.

Now that “Autumn is touching with wary finger the wealth of forest and orchard, and carefully-tended garden spots,” let’s open our copy of the New York Times—from October 23, 1862—and read the letter, The Season of the Vintage, the Croton Point Vineyards, to learn about the “commodious and cool” wine cellars, the clever “Yankee” solution to an invasion of “ground moles” and the plum-tree lake, where the trees are “planted as to hang directly out over the water” and the ripe fruit is “gathered in boats that moor immediately under the branches.”

“. . . granaries are bursting with the harvesting of the Summer’s generous growth, and the Autumn is touching with wary finger the wealth of forest and orchard, and carefully-tended garden spots, the vineyard, with its drooping clusters, claims our admiration. The wine-growers carry cheerful faces now, for along with the luxuriant abundance that has marked the growth of other fruits, the grape is worthily conspicuous. The hillsides of La Belle Riviere,1 and the southern slopes just off from the mad Missouri, sends us their brands of “Catawba” still, or sparkling, their sharp “red wine” and mellow native brandy; but in all these lurks a touch of grossness when compared with the home growth of our Croton and other vineyards. The “Union” wine, which, aside from its patriotic signification, is made up of a union of the two popular growths of Isabella and Catawba, is the unadulterated juice of the berry.

A trade card for the Underhill vineyards.

A trade card for the Underhill vineyards.

Having visited the Croton Point vineyards while the luxuriant harvest was at its height, some things were observed which you may find noticeable. Almost within sight of Manhattan Island, a narrow point projects suddenly from the main land into the Hudson, whose waters wash its west bank, the Croton River forming its eastern boundary. This grassy, well-wooded point divides the river into two bays—the one lying above called Haverstraw, and the one below, Tappan Zee—names whose origin needs no explanation to New-Yorkers. Upon the opposite shore of the Hudson there are wild mountains, frowning darkly, and bristling with rocks, upon this saucy little point making out so boldly into the middle of the river, and threatening to come clear across and bloom and blossom about their very base; but the rural hamlets peeping out from the cultivated valleys preserve the balance of cheerfulness, and the mountains frown on in silence, and the saucy little point glories in the admiration of passing voyagers, and entertains by shoals her friends, the shad, the perch, and striped bass, that play about her pebbly borders to the music of dashing spray and whispering pines. She flings a breath of redolence to the peaceful hamlets, and sighs through all vineyards for the desolate, grim old mountain. Between forty-five and fifty acres upon the Point are now covered with richly bearing vines. After many unsuccessful efforts to perfect foreign varieties, Dr. Underhill has settled upon the two familiar staples, the Isabella and the Catawba. These, he is persuaded, meet—all things considered—the demand for table, for general market supply, and for wine. The successful cultivation of these sorts has been carried on since 1834, and his plan is quite different in the rearing and training of the grape from that practiced in Europe, and upon our western border. He does not wind his vines around upright stakes, as is common, but he trains them along wires which are secured to posts some seven or eight feet high. The strain upon these posts is so great that they are driven four feet into the ground.

Detail from “Gathering Grapes—An October Scene on the Hudson,” a wood engraving published in Harper's Weekly. The image depicts the Underhill vineyard in 1867.

Detail from “Gathering Grapes—An October Scene on the Hudson,” a wood engraving published in Harper’s Weekly. The image depicts the Underhill vineyard in 1867.

The plants are never allowed to be forced, either in the nursery, or afterward in the vineyard. This would, indeed, produce large sap vessels, but would render the quality inferior, and subject the plants to “Winter kill.” The larger the sap vessels the greater the quantity of water, and the less the saccharine element, and, necessarily, the poorer the wine; for what dilutes the substance of the berry dilutes the wine. In order to concentrate the desirable qualities, the vines are subjected to a Winter as well as a Summer pruning. During the early Summer, after the berries are fully formed, a thorough pruning takes place. Every extra shoot, besides many hundreds of young bunches of fruit, are lopped off, leaving the whole strength of the vine to transfuse the remaining clusters. At the present season of the year, or earlier, when the crop is in full perfection, men accustomed to the cultivation of the grape in Europe are employed to garner it. The bunches are carefully supported while the pruning-knife does its work, and the rich masses are carried by huge basket loads into the “fruit house,” where woman's more delicate touch is brought to bear in culling every defective berry from each cluster, and placing them one after another in layers between light wood slats, with which the receiving-box is supplied. This box is then stored away for preservation till the market demand shall reach it. Baskets for ready use are also at hand, provided with wooden lids, which serve to transport the fruit to the city to supply the immediate demand of fruiterers, grocers, &c., &c.

Another trade card for the Underhill vineyards, showing the wine vaults which still exist—though much neglected—on Croton Point.

Another trade card for the Underhill vineyards, showing the wine vaults which still exist—though much neglected—on Croton Point.

The transportation is always by means of steamboat, the jarring of railroad being considered damaging to the mellow fruit. Beside this immense supply to the fruit market of New-York City and vicinity, there are hundreds and hundreds of bushels made into wine, and stored away in casks containing 800 gallons each. These occupy a row of hillside cellars, or vaults, arched, commodious and cool, with every conceivable adaptation to their use. In one of these cellars the wine press is situated. It is a disappointingly small affair, but one has to remember the slowness and gentleness with which it acts upon its quantum of grapes, and with what perfection it expresses their delicate virtues. The work is not hurried, and the pressure upon the mash is cautiously regulated. Perhaps this accounts for there being no skin flavor nor indefinably gross taste about the several varieties of Croton Point wine. The great casks are fed by hose running from the vat, and after age has laid his seal of excellence upon them the contents are drawn off in bottles and garnered in the great cellars below the general depot in Astor-place. The great casks and lesser barrels employed are all the work of home laborers; all the mechanical appliances of the place are from the workshops upon the grounds. Coopers, blacksmiths, carpenters, &c., are constantly employed.

Ground Mole Dogs

A trial to the spirit of wine growers is the ground mole. For the last twenty years it has been an increasing and much neglected evil all over the country. In Germany and other old countries of Europe, men are regularly elected whose business it is to exterminate this nuisance. They have numerous traps wherewith to make their raids, effectual; but Dr. Underhill having no such resource, and being, withal, a bit of a Yankee, has trained a band of little dogs, who let daylight in upon these stealthy borrowers in an entirely irresistible manner.

The Plum-Tree Lake

These grounds of Croton Point were, naturally, largely composed of mineral substances; consisting principally of fine granite, silex, oyster shells, &c., &c., combined with which was very little of vegetable matter. To supply this ingredient large alluvial deposits have been removed from near the mouth of the Croton River, leaving an excavation which has been filled to the forming of a beautiful lake, into which, by a sluice way, the choicest fish, as yellow and Croton-striped bass, white perch and sunfish make their way and are easily caught.

This tiny detail from an 1867 hand-colored map of the Hudson River, produced by the United States Coast Survey, shows what is most likely the "Plum Tree Lake" described in this article.

This tiny detail from an 1867 hand-colored map of the Hudson River, produced by the United States Coast Survey, shows what is most likely the “Plum Tree Lake” described in this article.

The main feature of this lake is, however, its complete border of plum trees, so planted as to hang directly out over the water. This plan is the result of experiment and conclusion arrived at by the Doctor, that the insect known as the “curculio,”2 whose ravages have defeated the utmost care of plum-growers, will not sting the fruit that hangs over water. The plums, when fully ripe, are gathered in boats that moor immediately under the branches. A very large crop has been gathered here at times when an utter failure has marked the country elsewhere. A nectarine pond is commenced upon the same principle.

Beside the almost illimitable variety of less important fruits, the monotony of the vineyards is relieved by orchards of Newtown pippins, the rich apple quince, pears, &c., &c. As for mammoth pumpkins—seedlings of other climes, both tropic and temperate—it is not consistent here to speak; but a visit to a Hudson River vineyard, with all its glorious resources of hill-side, valley, river, and mountain view, is something strangers from afar take delight in accomplishing, and our own citizens must be proud to enjoy.”3


  1. La Belle Riviere (the Beautiful River) was a 19th century name for the Ohio River, which had become a grape-growing area when this article was written.
  2. Plum curculio is a major insect pest of apple, plum, apricot and cherry, and a minor pest of pear and peach. See the University of Maine Cooperative Extension website.
  3. This letter was anonymously attributed to “R * * * * *”

Croton Cider—Then & Now

Ad for "Pure and Very Old Wine & Cider Vinegar" for sale at Croton Point from The Highland Democrat, June 17, 1893.

Ad for “Pure and Very Old Wine & Cider Vinegar” for sale at Croton Point from
the Highland Democrat, June 17, 1893.

If you want to introduce kids to Croton’s agricultural heritage, take them to Thompson’s Cider Mill on a Saturday to watch proprietor Geoff Thompson and his crew turn bushels of heirloom and traditional apples into old-fashioned apple cider.

They may not use the antique cider-making equipment that’s on display outside the mill, but the process is essentially the same as it was in the 18th and 19th century when the Underhills were growing grapes and apples on Croton Point and “one of the largest orchards in this country” belonging to “Mr. Conklin” was selling barrels of cider1 for $3 to $7 each from an orchard between Croton and Verplanck.2

For more information on Thompson’s Cider Mill, see their website.

Click the image to start the slideshow (and don’t miss the footnotes at the bottom of the page).


  1. In the 18th and 19th centuries, what we refer to as cider was “apple juice” and “cider” was the alcoholic drink we call “hard cider.” See A History of Agriculture in the State of New York by Ulysses P. Hedrick. Hedrick says cider “was more often quoted as an exchange commodity than apples or potatoes or any other fruit or vegetable . . . Apple juice and cider were legal tender for the cobbler, the tailor, the lawyer, the doctor, and there is at least one record . . . of a farmer’s paying for his daughter’s schooling with cider.”

  2. Conklin’s operation was described by James Stuart, who travelled north through the Croton area with his wife in September-October, 1829. After spending the night at “a second rate hotel, near the village of Croton, kept by civil people of the name of Macleod,” they head to Verplanck and along the way he includes this passage:

    “One of the largest orchards in this country . . . [belongs] to Mr. Conklin. It consists of forty acres. All the trees are raised by himself from the seed, and grafted. He sells his Newton pippins and Russell pippins, and manufactures the remainder of his apples into cider. The cider-mill is eighty feet long, and there are two cellars of equal length. The barrel of cider contains from twenty-eight to thirty-two gallons; the price of each barrel is from three to seven dollars, according to the quality.”

    This appears in volume one of Stuart’s two-volume work, Three Years in North America, which was published in 1833. According to Bauman Rare Books, his book is important because of its “compelling descriptions of Niagara Falls, the election of Andrew Jackson, the brutality of slavery, and the majesty of the West.” Both volumes are available free on Google Books. Here’s a link to volume one.

    Conklin may be the same person referred to by Pierre Van Cortlandt in a letter dated January 27, 1787. Van Cortlandt wrote that “Joseph Conklyn” wanted to rent “the Ridge farm Adjoyning the Paper Mill Farm” and that Conklyn “has Way Withal to Improve the farm; he is to make an Orchard of 150 trees, to be planted within four years.”

    See the Van Cortlandt Family Papers, vol. IV, p. 350.

Ruins of the Underhill Wine Cellars

Photo by Leslie V. Case. Used by permission of the Tarrytown Historical Society.

Photo by Leslie V. Case. Used by permission of the Tarrytown Historical Society.


Photo by Leslie V. Case. Used by permission of the Tarrytown Historical Society.

Photo by Leslie V. Case.
Used by permission of the Tarrytown Historical Society.


Case's notation in his photo album correctly notes the place and subject, but incorrectly attributes the wine cellars to the Teller family.

The notation in Case’s photo album correctly notes the place and subject, but incorrectly
attributes the wine cellars to the Teller family.

These undated photographs—probably taken in the 1920s or 1930s—show portions of what was then the ruins of the Underhill wine cellars on Croton Point. They were made by Leslie V. Case, who was superintendent of the Tarrytown Schools for more than 30 years. The photographs are glued to the pages of one of Case’s scrapbooks, now in the collection of the Tarrytown Historical Society, which has graciously given us permission to share them.

Portrait photograph of Leslie V. Case from a newspaper clipping in the files of the Tarrytown Historical Society. Used by permission of the Tarrytown Historical Society.

Portrait photograph of Leslie V. Case
from a newspaper clipping in the files of the Tarrytown Historical Society. Used by permission.

Mr. Case was not your average school superintendent. Among other things he was an amateur archeologist and geologist, who collected ancient Egyptian artifacts, gemstones, and Native American artifacts—some of which he dug up himself in his capacity as the chairman of the Westchester Historical Society’s Committee on Indian Remains. His historic 1848 house on Grove Street, in Tarrytown, eventually became the home of the Tarrytown Historical Society.1

For more information on the Underhill vineyards, see these previous posts:


  1. The house was built by Jacob Odell in 1848 as a wedding gift for his bride. Case purchased the house in 1918 and lived there until his death in 1937. His wife became the curator of the Tarrytown Historical Society and allowed portions of the house to be used by the society. In 1952 the historical society acquired the property through the generosity of John D. Rockefeller II.
  2. From an ad in the American Church Almanac and Year Book, 1878, placed by the company which was selling the wine. “For the purpose of closing the accounts of the Executors, the entire stock of wine left by Dr. Underhill, . . . which has now become very old and mellow, has been placed for sale in the hands of Messrs. H. K. and F. B. Thurber & Co , New York, who in turn are appointing druggists as agents to supply the retail demand.”

You Need Not go to the Rhine to See Vineyards

Gardner's Monthly Masthead 9-1-1859

In September 1859, The Gardener’s Monthly published an account of a trip to Croton Point, which the author says was “visited through the summer by numerous travellers, who are permitted to drive through the grounds.”

We’re lucky that Dr. Underhill allowed such free access to his property because this brief article gives us tantalizing details about the scope of his business—the fruit he grew in addition to grapes, the “deer-park and fish-pond” on Croton Point and his “near at hand . . . Mount Green farm,” which suggests that Underhill also owned land along Mount Green Road in Croton.1

“Croton Point, where Dr. Underhill has . . . been engaged in the formation of one of the largest vineyards in this country . . . to see how well he has succeeded it is only necessary take the boat . . . to Sing-Sing, whence you readily reach the vineyards. They are daily visited through the summer by numerous travellers, who are permitted to drive through the grounds.

. . . the northwest and southeast slopes are covered with vines so arranged, that a perfect draught of air is kept up between the rows. The land for these has been prepared at a cost of over four hundred dollars per acre; and from a soil apparently poor, you see thousands and thousands of grape-vines springing forth with luxuriant growth and full of green, white, pink, and purple fruit. The odor these vineyards, when the vines are in bloom, is exceedingly fragrant . . . At the end of the Point is situated the house, a beautiful Italian villa, from the tower of which is the most charming view perhaps on the whole Hudson.

Immediately around the villa, you see a large and choice variety of pear trees, whose luscious fruit might tempt a sated Sybarite.

As shown at the end of this ad—published the same year as the Gardener’s Monthly article—Apple-Qunice was another fruit grown on Croton Point.

As shown at the end of this ad—published the same year as the Gardener’s Monthly article—Apple-Qunice was another
fruit grown on Croton Point.

A little farther up the Point are the deer-park and fish-pond. In the former are some beautiful deer, that seem free to wander where they will. Over the whole of the farm there is scarcely a fence, and these deer are shut in by wires stretched from tree to tree, so that the view is in no way interrupted
. . . Around the bounds of the fish-pond (through which the Doctor has ingeniously contrived that the tide shall so ebb and flow as to permit the fish to enter, and having entered, not go forth again) he has a most select variety of plum trees, whose and golden fruit hangs out over the water . . .

In addition to his vineyards at Croton Point, the Doctor has near at hand his Mount Green farm, which he contemplates covering with vines. You need not go to the Rhine to see vineyards and enjoy scenery. . . .”


  1. Mount Green Road is off Old Post Road North, near Lounsbury Road.

Croton Point, 1898

Click the map to enlarge it. See the key to points of historic interest, below.

Click the map to enlarge it. See the key to points of historic interest, below.

This fascinating map of "Teller's Point or Croton Point" was drawn by Edward Hagaman Hall for an article published in the March, 1898 issue of the magazine The Spirit of '76.

In addition to recording the roads and buildings, Hall provided a numbered key (see below) to points of historic interest.

Edward Hagaman Hall was a journalist who became involved in a variety of preservation organizations at the turn of the century. According to the New York Preservation Archive Project, Hall's "efforts in preservation can be attributed in large part to the City Beautiful movement in the early 1900s. . . . Hall was pivotal in the nascent efforts to pass legislation monitoring the aesthetic fabric in New York City." He was also an officer of the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks and the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society.

The ASHPS was instrumental in advocating the preservation of Croton Point. The group held an option to purchase the land in 1917 and published an article in the first issue of their bulletin, likely written by Hall, that detailed the historic importance of the Point. "The Trustees of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society hope that the project for a public park on Croton Point . . . will receive the public support which it deserves."1

Explanation of Map

  1. Place whence Peterson and Sherwood fired on the boat . . . the Vulture, September 20th, 1780. Descendants of Peterson have the musket.
  2. Linden Cottage.
  3. Cannon ball found by Eugene Anderson, who now has it. It weighs five pounds.
  4. Old musket ram-rod found in clay. In possession of H. G Morehouse.
  5. Underhill Homestead.
  6. Old oak tree, a landmark. No one knows how old.
  7. Vine Cottage.
  8. Fish house.
  9. Cannon ball weighing nearly six pounds, plowed up in meadow.
  10. Squaw Point. Directly opposite, on the western bank, André landed from the Vulture and first met Arnold.
  11. Picnic Point, where Enoch Crosby, Cooper's Spy, once enticed ashore and helped capture a boat-load of British soldiers.
  12. Farm house 135 years old.
  13. Italian villa built by Dr. Robert T. Underhill, deceased.
  14. Cannon ball found lodged in a tree about eighty years ago, by Dr. Underhill. The ball is now in possession of S. W. Underhill and weighs about six pounds. The tree is not now standing, and the oldest inhabitant does not remember in which side of the tree the ball lodged.
  15. Place where earthworks were thrown up by Americans2 when they brought the cannon down to the point. Vouched for by S. W. Underhill, who lived there for sixty years. Dotted shore is low and sandy. Where the shore has declivity marks it is high and rocky.

  1. Scenic and Historic America, volume 1, issue 1, January 15, 1917.
  2. Hall added a footnote, "Livingston's cannon may have been shifted from one place to another, as the Vulture got under way."